Low propionic production pathway were observed during the entire APBR operation representing the consumption of 6.3% from the THP. On the other hand, the measured hydrogen flow rate represented only 12.8% of the THP, indicating the need to minimize the distribution of electrons (i.e., decrease the amount of intermediates). However, this task can be quite difficult because the composition of the vinasse is highly complex. According to Eq.
In Eq. (7), free chlorine and total chlorine can be measured accurately using DPD colorimetric method (MDL = 0.02 mg/L as Cl2), and NH2Cl can be detected accurately by MonochlorF method (MDL = 0.04 mg/L as Cl2, Hach Co., USA) . However, there is no accredited method for NHCl2 quantification except the MIMS method. In finished water from DWTPs, NHCl2 concentration obtained by [Total chlorine] − [Free chlorine] − [NH2Cl] is actually the sum of [NHCl2] and organic chloramine concentration ([Organic chloramines]), but there is no effective and convenient method to differentiate these tsa inhibitor two parts yet, except the technically demanding MIMS method. Therefore, Eq. (7) should be further transformed as follows:equation(8)[NaAsO2]Total=2.0×([Free chlorine]+[NH2Cl])+20.0×([NHCl2]+[Organic chloramines])[NaAsO2]Total=2.0×([Free chlorine]+[NH2Cl])+20.0×([NHCl2]+[Organic chloramines])
Based on Eq. (8) and the results shown in Fig. 2, free chlorine, NH2Cl and NHCl2 in the practical finished waters can be considered absolutely quenched after the calculated [NaAsO2]Total is added. During the quenching reaction, some organic chloramines, which have some oxidizing capacity, can be also quenched by the excess NaAsO2. For example, chlorinated glycine was prepared (molar ratio of Cl/N = 0.4, pH = 8.0)  and  for NaAsO2 quenching at pH 7.0 in our study and it was found that the chlorinated glycine could be quenched absolutely with only 2 times NaAsO2 molar concentration (data not shown). The result is also consistent with the study of Amiri et al. that chlorinated glycine got some bactericidal ability at pH 6.9 . The remaining part of organic chloramines without oxidizing abilities is the right target we should pay attention to, which we name “ineffective chlorine” in this study.
AcknowledgementsWe thankfully acknowledge the work of A. Raemmler (X-ray and ICP/MS analysis). The authors would also like to thank G. Weichert for technical assistance. The results Abiraterone acetate part of the research project CARBOWERT financed by the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMEL).
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data 1.
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A high value added porous carbon was obtained from a corncob residue, which shows a superior capacitive performance compared to cell plate polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The corresponding symmetrical cell shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Compared to the total MS-275 potential of waste of 1125 PJ in 2012, about 283 PJ could be recovered from the LFG from landfills in the whole African continent, if all waste from urban areas is collected. From the total 2198 PJ of waste expected to be generated in 2025, around 530 PJ can be recovered from the LFG from landfills, also assuming a complete collection of generated waste. Considering the total energy potential of waste actually collected of 613 PJ in 2012, only about 155 PJ could be recovered from the LFG from landfills and from the overall 1508 PJ of waste generated in 2025, 363 PJ could be recovered from the LFG from landfills. The data shows large variations between countries, depending on the waste generation and waste collection rates as well, which have a large impact on the waste potentially available for energy. Moreover, electron needs to be pointed out that these results depend on the future options applied to waste management in Africa (reducing, recycling, reusing, composting, etc.) and to an extent to which the collection rates could increase, an aspect for which a simple “business as usual” approach is taken in this study.
Bioelectricity linked to the production of ethanol and sugar has exceptional conditions to represent strategic role in the expansion of the national power system, as an important LY450139 source to supplement the offer of energy generated by the hydroelectricity, besides providing low cost production, transmission and distribution (electric energy generated nearest the consumer centers), environmental benefits (source of renewable energy and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases) and socioeconomic benefits (employment generation, guarantee of the supply of energy, reductions in electricity transmission losses and decentralization of electric energy offer). All these factors strengthen the competitiveness of the national economy ; furthermore, bioelectricity allows the generation of energy during the months with lower pluviometrics levels  and , making possible the decrease in the cost of production of sugar, ethanol and cellulosic ethanol, when bioelectricity generation is present in the productive process  and , providing fixed values and financial contracts exceeding 15 years . Therefore this situation stimulates the choice of public–private policies favorable to the generation of bioelectricity as a possible energetic solution, to the energetic market in a country in full socioeconomic expansion, with growing need for electric power availability.